Worms in children: signs, symptoms, treatment, prevention

children can also become infected with worms on the street

Parasitic disease (helminthic invasion)- the development of non-specific painful symptoms resulting from the vital activity of worms or protozoa in the child's body.

In everyone's life? a person carries various parasitic diseases more than once. Most oftenworms are diagnosed in children. . . Does its prevalence in the environment help this? the environment of larvae of cysts, eggs, parasites, insufficient development of hygienic skills, and periods of weakening of the immune system? protection of the mucous membranes of the digestive system, which accompanies certain stages of a child’s development.

The most common and studied diseases aascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis- are registered everywhere. Approximately 650 million people worldwide are infected with ascariasis each year, 460 million people are infected with enterobiasis (Chan M. S. , 1997), and more than 2 million nematodes are diagnosed in Hungary each year.

Does the child’s body have a number of traits that are prone to a high risk of parasitic infections? invasions:

  • high activity of metabolic processes;
  • immaturity of regulatory mechanisms;
  • hypersensitivity to various factors;
  • presence of critical developmental periods.

These periods in a child’s life are characterized by the intensity of adaptation processes and declining protection reserves, as well as the intense impact of the environment.

Prevention of worms in children.

Unfortunately, currently, the prevention of helminthiasis, like other diseases, is limited to the treatment of identified patients. Is this one of the reasons for the prevalence of parasitosis in children, which disrupts the development of all body systems and leads to the development of chronic diseases? even if it is natural? disinfection of the child over time.

pinworms in the body in children

Violation of the natural immune protection of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of a child is a major condition for the infection of worms.

Women's pinworm

Immune protection in the gastrointestinal tract of a child is conditionally specific and non-specific.Non-specific protection involves a set of conditions required for normal digestion: maturity of enzyme systems, maintenance of normal pH in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, normal microflora activity, adequate motility.

For a disease such as e. g.giardiasis, the predisposing factor of the invasion is the irregular and insufficient separation of the bile into the intestine, with developmental disorders of the gallbladder (narrowing, bends).Studies have shown that giardiasis in children was accompanied by biliary dysfunction in 100% of cases.

Children during the recovery periodafter acute intestinal infections, after massive antibiotic therapy and in patients with chronic gastrointestinal pathologyViolation of enzyme supply, normal flora, and intestinal motility also makes the gastrointestinal tract more vulnerable to parasites.

The duration and quality of breastfeeding is invaluable in preventing parasitosis. The risk of parasite infestation increases sharply with the switch to artificial feeding or the introduction of supplementary feeding.

The mechanism of specific immune protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa is one of the oldest systems of immune defense in the body, given that helminthiases have accompanied humanity for many millennia. It is mainly represented by blood osinophils and immunoglobulin E.

During helminthic-protozoal invasions, the immune response is characterized by poor specificity due to the heterogeneity of parasite antigens. In addition to stimulating the immune response, helminths also have an immunosuppressive effect. This negatively affects a person's resistance to bacterial, viral and other infections, reducing the effectiveness of preventive vaccinations.

So the followingWays to prevent helminthiasis in children:

  1. Long-term breastfeeding.
  2. Promoting hygiene skills in a timely manner.
  3. Treatment of chronic gastrointestinal diseases.
  4. Maintain normal intestinal microflora.
  5. Strengthening the immune system.

Symptoms and signs of worms in children

Dirofilaria

dirofilariae in children

The effects of parasites on a child’s body occur both locally and involving a number of body systems.Local effectparasites, causing inflammation of the mucosa due to the release of proteolytic enzymes and hyaluronidase, actively disrupt digestive processes, motility of the gastrointestinal tract and affect the composition of the microflora.

Systemic effectsIt turns out that the parasite uses food to the detriment of the child’s body, to trigger allergies and autoimmune processes, targeted suppression of immunity, general intoxication, and microbiocenotic disorders.

Are parasites detected in 69. 1% of children with atopic dermatitis, while giardiasis of all invasions? this is 78, 5%.

In 75. 3% of cases, parasitosis is accompanied by various functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

In the clinical picture of parasitoses, a distinction is made between acute and chronic phases.Acute phase(invasion) - general allergic reaction to antigens of migratory larvae and early stages of developing parasites:fever, edema, skin rash, muscle pain, joint pain, lymphadenopathy, pain in the lungs, abdomen, increased number of eosinophils, dysproteinemia. In the chronic phase, symptoms and syndromes predominate, reflecting the dysfunction of the organ or system in which the pathogen is parasitized.

By penetrating a child’s body, parasites are able to upset the microecological balance and cause imbalance in the microbial flora.

Violation of the intestinal flora by parasitosis:

  • Decrease in the total amount of Escherichia coli with normal enzyme activity below 300 million / g
  • Increase in the number of Escherichia coli with a decrease in enzyme activity of more than 10% of the total amount of Escherichia coli
  • Presence of coconut flora in excess of 25% of total microbes
  • Significant reduction in the number of lactobacilli: two or more orders of magnitude (less than 105)
  • Violation of intestinal biocenosis

Diagnosis of parasitosis.

To date, a simple, affordable, and reliable method for diagnosing helminthiasis has been sought. Available direct visual detection techniques require multiple retests. Known methods for diagnosing helminthic invasion have a number of drawbacks related to both the developmental characteristics of the parasite and the condition and responsiveness of the human body.

However, the effort involved may be useless if the test is performed during the cessation of cyst or egg formation. For example, the frequency of ovulation of female pinworms determines the informativeness of perianal scraping using a 1-2-fold assay method. The peculiarities of secretion of cysts by lamblia are called the "phenomenon of intermittent cyst excretion", in which the phases of massive cyst excretion are replaced by negative phases that can last from 2-3 days to 2-3 weeks. During this period, it is almost impossible to detect Giardia in the stool.

Indirect research methods (determination of specific antibodies) do not have sufficient specificity and reliability.

Due to the high cost and complexity, parasite determination by PCR cannot be screened when, for example, a group of children from a pediatric institution has to be examined.

Indirect laboratory signs of parasitosis may include anemia, basophilia, eosinophilia, elevated AST.

what do parasites look like in children

Toksokara

Research by specialists at the MONIKI Pediatric Clinic has shown that indirect signs of parasitosis in the abdominal organs in children older than 3 years are hepatosplenomegaly, irregularity of the parenchyma due to small hyperechoic signs, and swollen lymph nodes in the spleen. .

Portrait of a child with helminthiasis:

Emotionally unstable andworriedchild drypale skin, Withenlarged lymph nodes, with grade II-III adenoids, "sticky" in the mouth, "geographical" tongue, withdecreased or selective appetite, often with manifestationsallergy,Withunstable stool, more often prone to liquefaction

Ascariasis

Development takes place in 2 stages: migration and intestinal. Infection occurs when a mature tapeworm egg is swallowed along with soil particles on vegetables, herbs, and berries.

The larvae released from the egg enter the intestinal wall and can enter the liver and lungs through lymph flow.

It causes bleeding in the lungs, liver and intestines.

Ascariasishas a major impact on the quality of nutrition and immunological mechanisms in children. It can cause pain in the right upper abdomen, catarrhal symptoms, respiratory allergies, gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, diarrhea.

Enterobiasis

The most common among other helminthiases. Infection occurs when eggs are swallowed from dirty hands, vegetables, herbs, household items.

The processes of absorption and digestion of food are interrupted. The intestinal microflora is disturbed. This leads to weight loss, gain and development in the child.

Giardiasis

Giardia- unicellular flagella, living in the small intestine. The source of infection is humans or pets. In the acute phase of the infection, the child has watery, foamy stools, bloating, vomiting, rubella-like rashes (not always).

The most common in the chronic phase - atopic dermatitis and chronic poisoning.

Examination of giardiasis can be seen:

  • in the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract which are prone to chronic course, with frequent but moderate exacerbations;
  • in combination with neurocirculatory dysfunction, especially gastrointestinal disorders;
  • with persistent blood osinophilia;
  • with allergic syndrome;
  • with hepatomegaly of unknown origin (abdominal pain).

Treatment of worms in children.

Treatment should be started with special anthelmintics and diet.

The reception of antiparasitic drugs should be based on the type of infectious agent.

Parasite therapy

Section I:anthelmintic (protozoal) medicine

II. section: courseenterosorbents- 5 days

III. platoon:enzyme preparations- 7-14 days

ARC. platoon:biological agents- 7-21 days

Section V:vitamin and mineral complex

The possible reactions of antiparasitic therapy in connection with the active destruction of helminths should be reminded - on the second and third day the child may feel worse, rash, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting may occur. This is a normal reaction that does not require discontinuation of the drug but, on the contrary, indicates the effectiveness of the therapy. Enterosorbents are added to prevent such reactions.

As helminthiasis is often accompanied by fermentopathy, it is essential to include enzyme preparations in the treatment regimen.

In order to eliminate the phenomena of dysbiosis, restore the functions of the microflora, stimulate immunity (which depends directly on the state of the microflora), it is absolutely necessary to take probiotics.

Vitamin-mineral complexes are required to correct polymicronutrient deficiency.

In conclusion, I would like to mention once again the importance of preventing helminthiasis, namely the maintenance of a normal intestinal microflora and the whole body. This is especially important for both children and adults, as a healthy microflora and strong immunity are the most important protection of the human body against helminthic invasion for centuries!